The civil administration "pursued pacification less ferociously than its military predecessor" and recruited Bougainvilleans as interpreters. In their absence, Chan's government entered into negotiations with a group of chiefs from the Nasioi clan, headed by Theodore Miriung, a former lawyer for the Panguna Landowners Association. The discovery of vast copper ore deposits in the Crown Prince Range on Bougainville Island during the 1960s led to the establishment of the huge Bougainville Copper Mine by the Australian company Conzinc Rio Tinto. The next month, the home of the BIG's representative in the Solomon Islands, Martin Mirori, was firebombed. The subsequent Allied campaign to reclaim the islands resulted in heavy casualties and the eventual restoration of Australian control in 1945. Both of these men later became involved directly in the independence movement. When this arrangement expired in September 1975, the island was transferred to Papua New Guinea. After five resolutions in the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, a report by the Special Rapporteur on Summary Executions and Disappearances and a resolution from the Security Council as well as mounting pressure from Amnesty International, ICRC and other human rights groups, the governments of Australia and New Zealand ceased providing military support, forcing Chan to begin to look elsewhere. As of 1 January 1914, there were 74 Europeans in the area, one-third of whom were connected with the Marist mission and 17 of whom were British subjects (including Australians). Other researchers pointed out that even though journalists got into Bougainville during the crisis, the coverage was uneven (Cronau, 1994; Denoon & Spriggs, 1992). This is the old gateway town to the Panguna copper mine which caused all the problems. The American Civil war has also been popularized as the war of several states because many of them were involved in it. Chan announced his intention to find a peaceful solution to the conflict. The Bougainville Peace Agreement decreed that all personnel should be withdrawn from the island by December 2002. That 10-year conflict, which raged from 1988 until 1998, saw the deaths of up to 20,000 people, or around 10 per cent of Bougainville's population at that time. Bougainville is due to … The war started in 1989 when the impoverished people took up arms. In 1942, Bougainville was occupied by Japanese forces, who used it as a base to attack Guadalcanal and other Allied territory. Roderic Alley, "Ethnosecession in Papua New Guinea: The Bougainville Case," in Rajat Ganguly and Ian MacDuff, ed.s, This page was last edited on 17 December 2020, at 22:26. The Galactic Civil War (4 BBY5 ABY), also referred to as the revolution or the rebellion, was a galactic power struggle in which the Alliance to Restore the Republic waged a rebellion against the ruling Galactic Empire in an attempt to restore democratic rule to the galaxy. New Prime Minister Paias Wingti took a considerably more hardline stance. Rapprochment between Kauona and Momis led to an agreement in which the two bodies would act in consultation. The 1919 Treaty of Versailles established the former German territory as a League of Nations mandate, the responsibility for which was awarded to Australia. There was no further European contact until 1767, when British naval officer Philip Carteret visited and named the Carteret Islands. April 12: The Civil War began on April 12, 1861 with the attack on Fort Sumter in the harbor at Charleston, South Carolina. Anger over the non-payment of royalties, the pollution of the rivers by the tailings from the mine and a belief that the mining land would never be restored to its natural state, made many landowners resentful that their traditional lives would be lost forever to the mining operation. , Dutch explorers Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire were the first Europeans to sight present-day Bougainville, skirting Takuu Atoll and Nissan Island in 1616. They also failed in an attempt to unite with the Solomon Islands. Although Chan's government attempted to blame the BRA, a subsequent independent investigation implicated members of the PNG defence force and the resistance militias. On 13 December, Kaiser Wilhelm I granted the New Guinea Company a charter to govern the protectorate in accordance with the existing arrangements for German New Guinea. The Civil War started on the 12th of April, 1861 in Charleston Bay, South Carolina, when the Confederates opened fire on the Union-controlled Fort Sumter. However, the BIG leaders boycotted the conference, claiming that their safety could not be guaranteed. The presence of Bougainville as a 'black spot' in an island world of brownskins (later called redskins) raises a question that cannot now be answered.  The late 1920s and 1930s also produced an influx of anthropologists and ethnographers to Bougainville, among them Australians Ernest and Sarah Chinnery, Catholic priest Patrick O'Reilly, Briton Beatrice Blackwood, and American Douglas L. The BRA conducted violence against the provincial government, including the assassination of John Bika, Kabui's Commerce and Liquor Licensing Minister.  As of 1905, "there was apparently not a single permanent trading post manned by a non-native". Field, AFP 30 January 1998 Publisher's note: Max Watts provided supplementary comments in upper case. 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